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Wander Lord

Interesting on art, nature, people, history

Category Archive: History

Siege of Leningrad. Pages of history

Siege of Leningrad. Pages of history

Siege of Leningrad. Pages of history


During World War II German and Finnish armies besieged Leningrad for 872 days. It was the Soviet Union’s second largest city and important center for armaments production. The destruction of Leningrad was one of Adolf Hitler’s strategic objectives in attacking the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941. German Army Group North sealed off Leningrad on September 8, 1941. About 2.5 million people were trapped within the city. During the siege of Leningrad 632 000 people died of hunger, 17 000 Leningraders were killed by bombs and shells, 840 factories and 53.5 million square feet of housing were destroyed.
The only connection that Leningrad maintained with the rest of the Soviet Union was across Lake Ladoga, which German aircraft patrolled.
Hitler’s plan was to subdue Leningrad through blockade, bombardment, and starvation prior to seizing the city. German artillery gunners, together with the Luftwaffe, killed approximately 17,000 Leningraders during the siege.
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Interesting about Cosmetics

Interesting about Cosmetics

Interesting about Cosmetics


Cosmetics are products that people put on their bodies to make themselves feel more beautiful. There are many types of cosmetics, including face makeup, nail polish, lotions, perfumes, and shampoos. Cosmetics were also used in ancient times. Today millions of people throughout the world use cosmetics every day.
Ancient Egyptians were the first people known to use cosmetics. Egyptian men and women used perfumed oils to keep their skin from drying out. They also used natural coloring on their eyelids and eyelashes. The Romans later introduced more types of cosmetics.
Historians argue that the first lipstick appeared 12 thousand years ago. It could be juice of berries, mush made from plants or bark of trees. The first documentary evidence of the use of lipstick was found in the chronicles of Ancient Babylon. The Mesopotamian nobles used a creamy substance made from crushed semiprecious stones and minerals.
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Shield – military armor

Shield - military armor

Shield – military armor


Shield is an old military armor. Soldiers used it to protect themselves from weapons. Most of the shields were usually made of wood, rods and leather, bound with bronze, iron. The form of the shields could be round, oval, rectangular, triangular, often with a curved plane.
During excavation of Scythian burials, the remains of shields with a metal coating were found. Shields decorated with precious metals and gems were considered very expensive gifts, they were presented to the most notable soldiers.
Round shields were a universal category of shields. The shield was bulging and the weapon slipped from it. Later, people used almond-shaped shields covering almost the entire body from the chin to the knees. Then triangular, trapezoidal, rectangular shields appeared.
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Automobiles History

Automobiles History

Automobiles History


The first true automobile was a machine that had three wheels and was powered by steam. It was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot in 1769. It was heavy and moved very slowly. A disadvantage of steam was that water had to be brought to a boil before the car could go. During the late 1890s and early 1900s manufacturers produced cars run by electric motors. Electric cars did not run well at high speeds and had to have their batteries recharged every 80 kilometers.
In 1860 Etienne Lenoir developed a gasoline-powered internal-combustion engine and 16 years later the German Nikolaus Otto built an improved gasoline engine. In 1893 the brothers Charles E. and J. Frank Duryea built the first successful gasoline-powered car in the United States.
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Executioner – special profession

Executioner - special profession

Executioner – special profession


This profession is difficult to classify as popular, but it is one of the oldest. The executioners have been in demand since time immemorial, they are still working today. Alas, this terrible profession is always necessary, because someone has to carry out death sentences.
The executioner could not be classified as ordinary citizens. He was an important and respected person. Even noble townspeople bowed before the executioner. Someone sought his friendship, but in vain – the executioner was impregnable, his destiny was solitude.
As a rule, this profession was inherited. In many countries there were working dynasties and some representatives of these dynasties managed to achieve wealth and glory.
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Spoon – useful thing

Spoon – useful thing

Spoon – useful thing


Once a person had liquid food, he had no choice but to invent a spoon. The ancient Egyptians had spoons made of wood, stone and ivory. In ancient Rome, they used spoons made of bronze and silver. In the Middle Ages, rich people ate with silver spoons, while the rest of the spoons were made of tin and wood. In the countries of Northern and Eastern Europe, which were rich in forests, spoons were carved out of wood.
In Russia spoons appeared at least two thousand years ago. In ancient Novgorod there were various wooden spoons decorated with paintings and carvings. Silver spoons in Russia were made by forging. For a simple Russian peasant, the spoon was one of the few personal things. Therefore, it was protected and marked.
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Fortress of Krak des Chevaliers

Fortress of Krak des Chevaliers

Fortress of Krak des Chevaliers


Crusades to Palestine in XI-XII centuries forced knights to build defenses on their way. The fortress of Krak des Chevaliers in today’s Syria is one of the most notable in architectural terms. Historians and archaeologists consider it to be the most outstanding military construction of the Middle Ages. In 2006, the fortress was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List of Humanity.
Pope Urban II, a Frenchman by birth, blessing the Knights in 1095 for the first Crusade, proclaimed from the steps of the cathedral, that all fighters with unbelievers would be forgiven any sins. They had to win the Tomb of Christ in Jerusalem, purify the Holy Land. Fame and wealth were ahead of them. And after death, they were ready to go to heaven. Jesus himself would be the leader in the struggle. The answer of the crown was the wild cries of ecstasy. The holy psalms began to sound and the army of many thousands people moved on a campaign to the east, to Constantinople and then Jerusalem. The procession was headed by representatives of the pope, princes, aristocrats. They were waiting for an amazing adventure, glory and wealth.
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