Wander Lord

Interesting on art, nature, people, history

Category Archive: History

Shield – military armor

Shield - military armor

Shield – military armor


Shield is an old military armor. Soldiers used it to protect themselves from weapons. Most of the shields were usually made of wood, rods and leather, bound with bronze, iron. The form of the shields could be round, oval, rectangular, triangular, often with a curved plane.
During excavation of Scythian burials, the remains of shields with a metal coating were found. Shields decorated with precious metals and gems were considered very expensive gifts, they were presented to the most notable soldiers.
Round shields were a universal category of shields. The shield was bulging and the weapon slipped from it. Later, people used almond-shaped shields covering almost the entire body from the chin to the knees. Then triangular, trapezoidal, rectangular shields appeared.
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Automobiles History

Automobiles History

Automobiles History


The first true automobile was a machine that had three wheels and was powered by steam. It was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot in 1769. It was heavy and moved very slowly. A disadvantage of steam was that water had to be brought to a boil before the car could go. During the late 1890s and early 1900s manufacturers produced cars run by electric motors. Electric cars did not run well at high speeds and had to have their batteries recharged every 80 kilometers.
In 1860 Etienne Lenoir developed a gasoline-powered internal-combustion engine and 16 years later the German Nikolaus Otto built an improved gasoline engine. In 1893 the brothers Charles E. and J. Frank Duryea built the first successful gasoline-powered car in the United States.
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Executioner – special profession

Executioner - special profession

Executioner – special profession


This profession is difficult to classify as popular, but it is one of the oldest. The executioners have been in demand since time immemorial, they are still working today. Alas, this terrible profession is always necessary, because someone has to carry out death sentences.
The executioner could not be classified as ordinary citizens. He was an important and respected person. Even noble townspeople bowed before the executioner. Someone sought his friendship, but in vain – the executioner was impregnable, his destiny was solitude.
As a rule, this profession was inherited. In many countries there were working dynasties and some representatives of these dynasties managed to achieve wealth and glory.
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Spoon – useful thing

Spoon – useful thing

Spoon – useful thing


Once a person had liquid food, he had no choice but to invent a spoon. The ancient Egyptians had spoons made of wood, stone and ivory. In ancient Rome, they used spoons made of bronze and silver. In the Middle Ages, rich people ate with silver spoons, while the rest of the spoons were made of tin and wood. In the countries of Northern and Eastern Europe, which were rich in forests, spoons were carved out of wood.
In Russia spoons appeared at least two thousand years ago. In ancient Novgorod there were various wooden spoons decorated with paintings and carvings. Silver spoons in Russia were made by forging. For a simple Russian peasant, the spoon was one of the few personal things. Therefore, it was protected and marked.
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Fortress of Krak des Chevaliers

Fortress of Krak des Chevaliers

Fortress of Krak des Chevaliers


Crusades to Palestine in XI-XII centuries forced knights to build defenses on their way. The fortress of Krak des Chevaliers in today’s Syria is one of the most notable in architectural terms. Historians and archaeologists consider it to be the most outstanding military construction of the Middle Ages. In 2006, the fortress was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List of Humanity.
Pope Urban II, a Frenchman by birth, blessing the Knights in 1095 for the first Crusade, proclaimed from the steps of the cathedral, that all fighters with unbelievers would be forgiven any sins. They had to win the Tomb of Christ in Jerusalem, purify the Holy Land. Fame and wealth were ahead of them. And after death, they were ready to go to heaven. Jesus himself would be the leader in the struggle. The answer of the crown was the wild cries of ecstasy. The holy psalms began to sound and the army of many thousands people moved on a campaign to the east, to Constantinople and then Jerusalem. The procession was headed by representatives of the pope, princes, aristocrats. They were waiting for an amazing adventure, glory and wealth.
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Noah’s Ark – myth or reality

Noah's Ark – myth or reality

Noah’s Ark – myth or reality


The myth of a great flood – a terrible catastrophe, sent by divine power in time immemorial to destroy human civilization – is widespread among dozens of peoples of the world. The most famous of these myths are the biblical story of the Flood and Noah’s Ark, the Hindu legend of Manu, the tale of the Deucalion Flood in Greek mythology, the Babylonian myth of Utnapishtim in the Epic of Gilgamesh.
The earliest existing legend of the Flood appeared in the Ancient Sumer. The text of the Sumerian flood poem, dated to the 17th century BC. It was found during excavations of the city of Nippur and in 1914 it was published by Arno Poebel. The poem tells how the god Enki warned the king-priest Ziusudra about the decision of the gods to destroy mankind. Enki ordered the king to build a large boat. The flood lasted seven days and seven nights, after which Ziusudra left his ship and sacrificed bulls and sheep. Then the hero was instructed to populate the land again.
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Holy Grail – legendary thing

Holy Grail – legendary thing

Holy Grail – legendary thing


The story of the Holy Grail is such an intricate tangle of European legends, oriental stories, literary narratives and conjectures, rooted not in the biblical source, as one might suppose, but almost in the pagan folklore motifs of the Celts.
The Holy Grail is most often identified as a serving dish or a chalice that was used by Jesus during the Last Supper.
The Provencal poet troubadour Chrétien de Troyes described the Grail in his novel Perceval or The Story of the Grail (1182). In this novel the Grail is presented in the form of a large dish with precious stones. However, in other works about this artifact – poems and novels – the Grail appears in the form of a bowl, a cup and even a stone. However, none of these works does not enjoy the reputation of an authoritative source of information.
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