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Wander Lord

Interesting on art, nature, people, history

Category Archive: Inventions

Interesting valenki

Interesting valenki

Interesting valenki


Nowadays, valenki are again in fashion. Valenki are traditional Russian footwear made of felt. They are colorful and very warm.
People learned to make felt long ago. Carpets, hats, clothes, and many other things were already made of it long before our era. A thousand and a half years ago, people already knew how to make shoes with felt inserts. Then they began to sew the felt and make slippers. And only about two hundred years ago, an unknown master made a felt boot without seams.
Technologically, the manufacture of valenki is not complicated. At first the wool is cleaned and rolled for a long time. Then it is washed, beat and dried. To give color, they use alum, bluestone and blue sandalwood, and for lightening they use whitewash mixed with fresh milk or bleach in the sun.
If you want to get smooth valenki you should rub them with a pumice stone. And if you need woolly valenki you should use a grater.
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Walking stick – Gentleman’s Companion

Walking stick - Gentleman's Companion

Walking stick – Gentleman’s Companion


A walking stick is one of the most ancient objects in man’s everyday life. Having appeared as an irreplaceable thing in everyday life – shepherd’s stick, prop, crutch, it very soon turned into a symbol of supreme power and the most important attribute of rituals and divine services.
Osiris, Isis, Ra, Seth were portrayed with a stick. Ancient Greek and Roman gods also had ritual sticks. The triumphant stick, decorated with a golden eagle, the indispensable accessory of the commander, subsequently became a sign of the imperial power. By the way, the sticks were found in virtually all rooms of the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun.
In medieval miniatures, Byzantine mosaics and frescos one can see simple elongated sticks, sometimes with a curved upper part or with a spherical shape, a knob topped with a shamrock, in the hands of the saints.
The hierarchs of the Christian church were depicted with long sticks with a rich gold pommel-cross. The stick of the bishops had an almost annular curved knob in the form of a blossoming branch – in memory of the flourished rod of Aaron. This form of the stick became dominant for the abbots of the Roman Catholic Church.
In all cultures, the stick was associated with the image of the traveler.
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Interesting about Cosmetics

Interesting about Cosmetics

Interesting about Cosmetics


Cosmetics are products that people put on their bodies to make themselves feel more beautiful. There are many types of cosmetics, including face makeup, nail polish, lotions, perfumes, and shampoos. Cosmetics were also used in ancient times. Today millions of people throughout the world use cosmetics every day.
Ancient Egyptians were the first people known to use cosmetics. Egyptian men and women used perfumed oils to keep their skin from drying out. They also used natural coloring on their eyelids and eyelashes. The Romans later introduced more types of cosmetics.
Historians argue that the first lipstick appeared 12 thousand years ago. It could be juice of berries, mush made from plants or bark of trees. The first documentary evidence of the use of lipstick was found in the chronicles of Ancient Babylon. The Mesopotamian nobles used a creamy substance made from crushed semiprecious stones and minerals.
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Shield – military armor

Shield - military armor

Shield – military armor


Shield is an old military armor. Soldiers used it to protect themselves from weapons. Most of the shields were usually made of wood, rods and leather, bound with bronze, iron. The form of the shields could be round, oval, rectangular, triangular, often with a curved plane.
During excavation of Scythian burials, the remains of shields with a metal coating were found. Shields decorated with precious metals and gems were considered very expensive gifts, they were presented to the most notable soldiers.
Round shields were a universal category of shields. The shield was bulging and the weapon slipped from it. Later, people used almond-shaped shields covering almost the entire body from the chin to the knees. Then triangular, trapezoidal, rectangular shields appeared.
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Paper – useful material

Paper - useful material

Paper – useful material


People use paper for writing, printing, wrapping, and many other purposes. Hundreds of years ago people made paper by hand. Today machines produce most paper. First, the wood fibers are soaked in water and creates a soupy mixture. Next, this mixture is spread on a screen and rollers press out water. Once the fibers are dry, they have become a sheet of paper.
Paper is available in a wide variety of weights, colors, textures, and finishes for a multitude of purposes. Everyday writing and printer paper is thin and smooth. Paper used for arts and crafts is thicker and textured. Cardboard is a thick type of paper used to make packaging. Paper used for newspapers is thin and cheap. Recycled paper is made from used paper.
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Automobiles History

Automobiles History

Automobiles History


The first true automobile was a machine that had three wheels and was powered by steam. It was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot in 1769. It was heavy and moved very slowly. A disadvantage of steam was that water had to be brought to a boil before the car could go. During the late 1890s and early 1900s manufacturers produced cars run by electric motors. Electric cars did not run well at high speeds and had to have their batteries recharged every 80 kilometers.
In 1860 Etienne Lenoir developed a gasoline-powered internal-combustion engine and 16 years later the German Nikolaus Otto built an improved gasoline engine. In 1893 the brothers Charles E. and J. Frank Duryea built the first successful gasoline-powered car in the United States.
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Spoon – useful thing

Spoon – useful thing

Spoon – useful thing


Once a person had liquid food, he had no choice but to invent a spoon. The ancient Egyptians had spoons made of wood, stone and ivory. In ancient Rome, they used spoons made of bronze and silver. In the Middle Ages, rich people ate with silver spoons, while the rest of the spoons were made of tin and wood. In the countries of Northern and Eastern Europe, which were rich in forests, spoons were carved out of wood.
In Russia spoons appeared at least two thousand years ago. In ancient Novgorod there were various wooden spoons decorated with paintings and carvings. Silver spoons in Russia were made by forging. For a simple Russian peasant, the spoon was one of the few personal things. Therefore, it was protected and marked.
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