History of photography
The word photography comes from two ancient Greek words: photo, for light, and graph, for drawing.
Photography is the process of taking pictures and it requires a camera. Cameras work basically as our eyes do. Light enters through an aperture and then passes through a lens. In a traditional camera, film received and captured the image. The film had to be taken out of the camera and developed in order to finish the process of creating a photograph. Digital cameras do not use film. Instead, they translate the image into numbers recorded on a disk inside the camera. A computer decodes these numbers and displays a picture.
The shutter controls the amount of light that enters the camera. A photographer can adjust the shutter to create certain effects with the light.
Photography is a useful form of communication. Photos give information about people, places, objects, and events.
Many museums and galleries display photographs created by artists.
Louis Daguerre of France invented one of the earliest forms of photography in 1837. His camera recorded images on metal plates. The main problem was that no copies could be made of the original image. A few years later British scientist William Henry Fox Talbot invented a way to produce paper negatives.
In the late 1800s the U.S. inventor George Eastman invented flexible film. In 1907 color film was invented. Polaroid Land camera, which used black-and-white film that developed itself, appeared in 1947. Color Polaroid film became available in 1963. Digital cameras appeared in the 1990s.
Interesting about photos
– The famous photo of Einstein with his tongue sticking out was made in 1951 at the birthday of a physicist. Einstein presented it to Howard Smith, and wrote: “You will like this gesture, because it is intended for all mankind”.
– One of the most expensive photo of the world is the nameless work by Richard Prince from the series Cowboy, which was sold in 2008 for 3 million 401 thousand dollars.
– The camera Smena-simvol was used by Soviet climbers when climbing Everest in 1982; this camera returned from the expedition and is now in the Polytechnic Museum in Moscow.
– The famous American photographer Matthew B. Brady was the first person who photographed himself, so, he made a self-portrait. This photo was taken in 1897.
– William Thompson took the first underwater pictures using a camera installed on the bottom. The photos were of very poor quality.
– The first photo, which depicts the fully illuminated Earth (the sun was behind the Earth), is known as The Blue Marble and it was taken on December 7, 1972 by the crew of Apollo 17.
– The very first camera in the world was sold at an auction in Vienna in 2007. It is called Daguerrotype Susses Freres and was sold for 580 thousand euros or 800 thousand dollars.