Canada – The land of Long Winters
Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia. Its area is 9,984,670 square kilometers. It is a very cold place with long winters. The country is divided into 10 provinces and three territories.
Canada is one of the world’s wealthier countries. It is a leading producer of petroleum (oil), natural gas, and minerals.
Toronto is the largest city in Canada. The CN Tower, soaring above the skyline, is one of the world’s tallest structures. Montreal is one of Canada’s oldest cities and has many historical buildings.
Canada’s official languages are English and French. Canadian Indians are also known as First Nations people.
For thousands of years, Inuit lived in the north and American Indian peoples lived in the south of what is now Canada. Vikings from northern Europe arrived in what is now Newfoundland in about 1000 AD. In 1497 the Italian explorer John Cabot landed in eastern Canada. In 1534 a French explorer, Jacques Cartier, entered the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in what is now Quebec. The city of Quebec was founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain. In 1670 the English started Hudson’s Bay Company, which built trading posts around Hudson Bay. Over the next century Great Britain and France fought wars over the land. In 1763, Britain took control of Canada. In 1982 the British Parliament granted Canada control over its constitution and this made Canada an independent country.
Ottawa, the capital of Canada, is one of the country’s most attractive cities. It is located on the south side of the Ottawa River in the province of Ontario. It has many parks and rivers, bicycle paths, museums, art galleries, and universities. The Château Laurier is one of historic buildings go back to the early 1800s.
Quebec is both the oldest and the largest in land area of Canada’s ten provinces. It’s known in French as La Belle Province, “the beautiful province.”
– Churchill, Manitoba, on Hudson Bay, is sometimes called “the polar bear capital of the world.”
– Ontario is the most populated province.
– The Mackenzie is the longest river (4,290 km).
– Mount Logan is the highest point (5,959 m).
– Lake Superior is the largest lake (82,367 sq km).
– Canada has caves in nearly every region. Vancouver Island is commonly called the “Island of Caves”. The longest cave in the country is Castleguard Cave in the Banff National Park of Alberta province. It runs about 20,122 meters long and about 390 meters deep.
– The name “Canada” comes from the word “kanata”, which means “village”.
– The density of the population is the smallest in the world – 3.5 persons per 1 km2!
– Canada has more inland lakes and rivers than any other country in the world.
– Canada has the longest coastline in the world – more than 200 thousand kilometers.
– Trans-Canada is the longest national highway in the world – 7604 km.
– Della Falls is the highest waterfall in Canada with the height of 440 m. It is several times higher than the world-famous Niagara Falls.
– Hockey is the national game. It was invented in Canada, and the basic rules are taken from a similar game that was popular in the X century.
– The smallest prison in the world is located in Canada. It takes only 270 square meters.
– The baseball glove was invented in Canada in 1883.
– Canada is in the list of the world’s largest suppliers of gold, copper, zinc, nickel, aluminum, and natural gas.