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Wander Lord

Interesting on art, nature, people, history

Category Archive: Inventions

Animals in space

Animals in space

Animals in space


The triumphal flight of two dogs, Belka and Srelka, is widely known in the history of space exploration. But there were their predecessors, who paved the way to space and are now almost forgotten.
In 1946, the Soviet Union, barely recovering from the Second World War, adopted a program for the development of the country’s rocket and space industry. In addition to military-strategic tasks, scientists were required to verify the possibility of sending a person into space. But as in medicine, in the rocket and space industry, they first decided to conduct experiments on dogs.
The Americans chose the chimpanzee as the kind of animal closest to humans. And in the USSR, experts preferred the man’s best friends. According to the legend, the Soviet leaders believed that people liked dogs more than other mammals, so the dog-hero would glorify the Soviet Union quickly than a rat or a monkey. But it was not so.
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Amazing Skyscrapers all over the world

Amazing Skyscrapers all over the world

Amazing Skyscrapers all over the world


A skyscraper is a very tall building with many stories. Today some skyscrapers have more than 100 stories. The modern city, center of economic activity and capital of culture, is unimaginable without skyscrapers.
Before the middle of the 1800s the tremendous weight of each story made it impossible to build very high. Some architects used an iron frame to support taller buildings. In the 1860s steel became widely available. It is stronger and lighter than iron. Chicago’s Home Insurance Company Building was the first skyscraper to use steel construction. Built in 1884–85, it was 10 stories high.
In 1853 an American inventor Elisha Graves Otis introduced an elevator.
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Trousers – unisex clothing

Trousers - unisex clothing

Trousers – unisex clothing


Trousers are loved by both men and women. However, they passed a long and thorny path before they won the hearts of the representatives of both sexes. And at the end of the XX century, they became the main unisex clothing.
Trousers have existed since ancient times and rank among the most fundamental pieces of clothing.
Trousers became known to Europeans, most likely, thanks to the nomads of Central Asia, perhaps the Scythians, inhabited the Black Sea steppes for many centuries before our era.
The only clothing of the very first riders was the skin of the animal wrapped around the body, and very soon they realized that it was uncomfortable to ride in such clothes.
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History of photography

History of photography

History of photography


The word photography comes from two ancient Greek words: photo, for light, and graph, for drawing.
Photography is the process of taking pictures and it requires a camera. Cameras work basically as our eyes do. Light enters through an aperture and then passes through a lens. In a traditional camera, film received and captured the image. The film had to be taken out of the camera and developed in order to finish the process of creating a photograph. Digital cameras do not use film. Instead, they translate the image into numbers recorded on a disk inside the camera. A computer decodes these numbers and displays a picture.
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Wonderful bridges around the world

Wonderful bridges around the world. Pont du Gard, France

Wonderful bridges around the world. Pont du Gard, France


There are a lot of bridges all over the world. Travel on land is easier, safer, and more direct with bridges. Footbridges allow people to cross roads, rivers, and railroads safely.
The first bridges were made by placing tree trunks across rivers. Later, people made rope bridges by weaving plants together and built stone bridges with strong arches. Today bridges are built with concrete and other strong, modern materials instead of natural materials.
The Akashi-kaikyo bridge in Japan, has the longest single span of any bridge. The central span is 1,991 m long.
There are various ways of building bridges. Most of them rest on solid supports. Pontoon bridges float on the surface of the water.
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Modest charm of Samovar

Modest charm of Samovar

Modest charm of Samovar


Today the samovar is out of date. Earlier the families had a wonderful tradition of tea drinking, when the whole family gathered together at the samovar. This amazing household item was in almost every family.
The samovar became a symbol of Russia, but it was not a national invention. Peter I brought it from Holland along with other curious things. Because of the cold climate the samovar became very popular in Russia. To keep warm, people drank 15-20 cups of tea a day! In addition, the samovar heated the room.
The first manufacturers of samovars in Russia were the Ural craftsmen. Then there were workshops in Yaroslavl, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Vologda, Kostroma. Tula, which received the status of the capital of the samovar, was the leader among them.
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Interesting history of pencil

Interesting history of pencil

Interesting history of pencil


Once, back in the Paleolithic era, a hunter unknown to us scratched the figures of people and animals with a sharp stone on the wall of the cave. The centuries passed … the writing appeared. Signs were carved on stones, painted on papyrus. In Assyria, the signs were written with a sharpened stick on the plates made of wet clay, which were then fired.
In the Middle Ages, people learned to write with pieces of lead with sharpened ends. Since the XIV century, artists in Europe used lead and tin, as well as silver pins for drawing. The great Botticelli made many of his drawings using such pins.
In the middle of the XVI century, English shepherds from Cumberland found a fairly soft and brittle mineral in the ground. The rocks were taken for the deposit of the lead because of the color.
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