Australia – amazing country
Australia is an island continent and the world’s sixth largest country. Australia is situated in the Southern Hemisphere southeast of Asia, between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Its area is 7,686,300 square kilometers. Its official name is Commonwealth of Australia. The Latin name of Australia Terra Australis Incognita, which means Unknown southern land, appeared even during the reign of the Roman Empire.
Australia is a federation of six states and two territories. The largest State, Western Australia, is about the same size as Western Europe.
Australia is the flattest continent in the world. The highest point on mainland is Mount Kosciusko (2,229 meters) and the highest point in Australian territory is Mawson Peak (2,745 meters).
The lowest point on land is Lake Eyre (16 meters below sea level), which is also the largest lake (9,500 sq km).
Australia is rich in mineral resources: coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, and gold.
In 1770 James Cook discovered New South Wales, now Australia, the Green Continent. The land of kangaroos and wild Aborigines turned into a place of exiles in the late 18th century. At that time, the British authorities tried to fight with outrageous poverty and crime. Even for stealing a handkerchief, there was an execution or, an exile to a remote America. But the United States became independent, and the country refused to accept convicts. The discovery of the Australian continent was very useful. The term of hard labor was not less than seven years. Women with children were often among the sentenced. In those years, the way to the colony took seven months and who came there alive and healthy were considered lucky. Because of difficult living conditions, many of the settlers died over the next few years.
Canberra is the capital of the country. Long ago it was just a small settlement. The city spreads on both sides of the Molonglo River. Native Australians, called Aborigines, have lived in the Canberra region for thousands of years. Europeans founded a settlement there in the 1820s.