Greenland is the world’s largest island most of which lies within the Arctic Circle. Its area is 2,175,600 square kilometers. Its northern tip is only 800 kilometers from the North Pole. Mountains run along the island’s east and west coasts. Gunnbjorn is the highest point (3,700 m). Greenland is almost entirely covered in ice and in some places it is more than 3000 meters thick. Deep fjords and glaciers line the coasts; in many areas the great ice sheet runs directly into the sea. The weather in Greenland is cold and may change quickly from sunshine to blizzards.
Greenland’s official name, Kalaallit Nunaat, means “land of the people.”
There are very few trees in Greenland’s tundra. Grasses, sedges, and mosslike lichens are the main plants. Only seven kinds of mammals live there. They are polar bears, musk-oxen, reindeer, arctic foxes, snow hares, ermines, and lemmings.