Iraq covers the ancient region of Mesopotamia, land between the Tigris and the Euphrates. It borders Turkey, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria. Its area is 437,072 square kilometers. Its official name is Republic of Iraq.
Arabs make up the majority of Iraq’s population. Arabic is the country’s main language. The Kurds form the next-largest group and they speak Kurdish.
In about 3300 BC the Sumerians created one of the world’s first civilizations in Mesopotamia. Muslims from Arabia conquered the area in the AD 600s. Many of the greatest Muslim philosophers, poets, and writers lived in Baghdad, the center of the Muslim world.