Iraq – Arabian Nights
Iraq covers the ancient region of Mesopotamia, land between the Tigris and the Euphrates. It borders Turkey, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria. Its area is 437,072 square kilometers. Its official name is Republic of Iraq.
Arabs make up the majority of Iraq’s population. Arabic is the country’s main language. The Kurds form the next-largest group and they speak Kurdish.
In about 3300 BC the Sumerians created one of the world’s first civilizations in Mesopotamia. Muslims from Arabia conquered the area in the AD 600s. Many of the greatest Muslim philosophers, poets, and writers lived in Baghdad, the center of the Muslim world.
In 1258 the Mongols conquered the city. The Ottoman Turks took control in the 1500s. During World War I British troops ended Ottoman rule. In 1932 the country became independent. In 1980 Iran-Iraq war broke out and lasted until 1988. In early 1991 there was the Persian Gulf War between Iraq and Kuwait. In March 2003 U.S. and British forces invaded the country because they were feared that Iraq was making illegal weapons.
Baghdad is the capital of the country. It lies on the banks of the Tigris River. About 1,200 years ago caliph al-Mansur chose a village called Baghdad for his capital. The city was built within rounded walls and was called the City of Peace or the Round City. The stories in The Arabian Nights tell about the glory of Baghdad during the reign of Harun al-Rashid. Today Baghdad is a center of the art and culture of Islam.
Today Iraq is one of the world’s leading oil producers. It also produces oil products, chemicals, construction materials, and processed foods.
The Euphrates is the longest river in the country. The area west and southwest of the Euphrates River is a part of the Syrian Desert.
Iraq has a short coastline on the Persian Gulf between Iran and Kuwait.
Iraq’s highest peak, Mount Ebrāhīm (3,600 meters).
Photos from livinternet.ru